|1. No military use shall be made
of Antarctica, though military personnel and equipment may be used for
|2. There will be complete freedom
of scientific investigation.
|3. Antarctic Treaty Nations will
exchange plans for their scientific programmes, scientific data will
be freely available and scientists will be exchanged between expeditions
|4. No activities under the Treaty
will affect claims to sovereignty of any part of Antarctica made by
any nation. All territorial claims are put aside for the duration of
|5. Nuclear explosions and nuclear
waste disposal are banned from Antarctica.
|6. The Treaty applies to all
land and ice shelves south of 60° South, but not to the seas.
|7. All Antarctic stations and
all ships and aircraft supplying Antarctica shall be open to inspectors
from any Treaty nation.
|8. Observers and exchange scientists
shall be under the jurisdiction of their own country regardless of which
national station they may visit. National laws do not apply to stations
or areas, but only to the citizens of those countries.
|9. Treaty nations will meet to
consider ways of furthering the principles and objectives of the Treaty.
Attendance at these meetings shall be limited to those countries that
are engaged in substantial scientific research activity in Antarctica.
Unanimous approval will be necessary for any new measures to become
effective (i.e. everyone has to agree).
|10. All Treaty Nations will try
to ensure that no one carries out any activity in Antarctica that is
against the Treaty.
|11. Any dispute by Treaty Nations,
if not settled by agreement, shall be determined by the International
Court of Justice.
|12. The Treaty may be modified
at any time by unanimous agreement. After 30 years any consultative
Party may call for a conference to review the operation of the Treaty.
The Treaty may be modified at this conference by a majority decision.
|13. The Treaty must be legally
ratified (agreed to) by any nation wishing to join. Any member of the
United Nations may join as well as any other country invited to do so
by the Treaty Nations. All notices and records are deposited with the
Archives of the United States of America.
|14. The Treaty translated into
English, French, Russian and Spanish was signed on 1st December 1959
by 12 states and entered into force on 23rd of June 1961.