Extreme Cold Weather Clothes - for boys and girls, infants, toddlers and juniors
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Layering for warmth is the way to go when dressing for a cold or very cold climate. While a single very warm layer may seem the obvious choice, it gives less flexibility about controlling temperature. When you get too warm it's a big step-down to take off the big insulating layer, likewise if you're too cold, it's maybe a too-big step up to put the thick duvet on. Layering doesn't mean lots of thin layers, but rather different layers for different purposes, useful to remember when kids are more eager to rush outside than put more clothing on first. Layers give flexibility in use and also mean that they can be used alone when the temperatures aren't so low - an important consideration when fast growing kids mean that virtually nothing is ever going to fit them for two winters!
Surface area and volume - insulating your little penguin. Kids are smaller versions of adults though approximately the same shape, this means that they have a greater surface area to volume ratio than an adult does and will cool down faster in cold conditions and warm up faster in hot conditions being less able than an adult to control their body temperature by physiological means. So relative to an adult a child will need somewhat more clothing for the same cold conditions in the way that a penguin chick needs more insulation than its parent.
Mid Insulation Layer/s
Natural fibers can be used for these layers they can be used in addition to, or instead of, modern synthetics which are easier to care for.
Zips, collars, draw cords and pockets increase versatility and allow for increased ventilation during exertion or for all openings to be pulled closed while at rest and/or in very cold conditions.
This insulating layer can be combined with outer layer for wind and water resistant or can be separate. Fleeces in particular can't really be used as the only outer layer in the worst conditions despite the new coatings and finishes, they just aren't wind or water-proof enough on their own.
Lower body insulation.
Thick warm pants of a heavyweight natural material
for older kids or synthetic material such as polyester.
Avoid denim, it isn't very friendly when it's cold and
is quite unpleasant when damp.
The Outer or Shell Layer
Outer / shell layer. This has to put up directly with what the weather throws at it. So it needs to be windproof and preferably waterproof too.
It may combine the shell function with insulation or it may be simply be a "shell" without any extra insulation. Whichever it is, outer shell layers for kids especially should always have a hood to stop wind rain and snow getting down the collar and also as it can't be lost in the way that a hat can!
Elasticated cuffs for little ones and fastening cuffs for older kids along with draw cords to prevent warm air being lost while keeping snow, rain and wind out are essential features.
Many waterproof garments don't breathe so well and so can get a bit sweaty after a while unless they are a breathable fabric. They also tend not to be so soft when very cold, so choose according to your intended temperature use.
You may be tempted to get a cute child-version of an adult coat, a "looking at coat" as I think of them, often made of wool and with a tailored shape. While this might be perfect for Sunday Best or special occasions, they really aren't very effective at keeping the winter out, not being wind or waterproof, often with button fronts, loose sleeves and no draw-cords or elastic anywhere to keep body warmth in and the weather out.
Accessories to Protect the
Extremities - Head, Fingers and Toes (not forgetting
ankles, wrists and neck)
Fingers, toes and ears can get very cold very quickly, like little radiators, they can also lead to a loss of heat from the rest of the body. They also have a disproportionate influence in how comfortable you feel, including how long kids can play out in the snow or how long you get to stick to your plans without having to change them to warm up chilly children. So don't ignore the extremities!Hands
Mittens are more effective than gloves for keeping warm. For small ones they also have the enormous advantage of being much easier to get on than the detailed problem that getting five little fingers each into its own small compartment can pose.
Older children will be able to get gloves on themselves, though the mittens-are-warmer truism still applies. There's not a lot you can do in terms of manual dexterity with mittens on, but if there's not much to do and keeping the hands warm is the most important thing, then they are the obvious solution.
In extremely cold conditions a pair of thin gloves with mittens over the top work very effectively, not the least as the mitts can be slipped off to allow dexterity with the gloves alone giving flexibility of purpose.
Long wrists are always useful whether they are elasticated to go under a loose sleeve or loose to go over a tighter fitting sleeve as they prevent heat loss from an exposed wrist which can be significant or at least quite uncomfortable, especially in snow.
Ski-type gloves are a good if not the cheapest solution, they are both warm and water resistant which helps in snowy conditions.
Kids' gloves | Kids' mittens
"When your feet are cold, cover your head"-
About 20% of your body heat is lost through the head. It doesn't always seem like this as the need to keep the brain warm means it is rare to experience a "cold head". In heat retention terms however it's like having a radiator on the roof, so a very effective way of warming up overall is to put a hat on.
The good thing about hats is there is an almost endless variety of them so you should be able to find one that your child likes and wants to wear.
While hoods are good at keeping the weather out, they do restrict movement somewhat which you still retain with a hat, so I always made sure my children had both.
Try to avoid ones with bobbles or ears or similar sticky-out bits. Plain hats such as beanies allow you to easily pull a hood over them for extra warmth when needed, those extra "cool" additions will make the hood less effective as the hood is kept away from the hat. Dangly bits at the side might look neat in the store, but when the wind starts to whip them constantly against chilly cheeks, you'll really wish you'd gone for the plainer version (I do appreciate however that you may have an uphill struggle to implement the sensible over the cool solution here - good luck!).
Make sure hats cover the ears too or have ear-flaps that can be folded down when needed, (it also stops the bigger kids flicking exposed ears in the cold).
Balaclavas can be very effective, they can be rolled up as a standard hat or unrolled to provide extra warmth, especially useful in conjunction with a hood attached to the shell layer.
A thin pair of cotton inner socks for comfort with thicker high % wool outer socks works well with winter boots. Wool is the best material for the outer socks as it is an excellent insulator though less prone to making the feet sweat than synthetic materials. If dampness through sweating does occur, wool is still a good insulator. 100% wool might sound best but a small amount of a synthetic material such as nylon gives much better wear while some elastane or similar stretchy material gives a snug fit, helps keep them up and prevents them becoming mis-shapen.
Don't be tempted to put too many socks on and make the boots tight. Squashing out the air which provides the insulation means they won't be as warm.
When buying children boots for winter, you should be clear whether they are insulated or not. Many are sold as "winter boots" which while they are waterproof for wintery weather don't add much extra warmth, you'll need to get thick socks to go with them to make them proper winter boots. This is not necessarily an issue as they can be used in winter with thick socks and also the rest of the year with thinner socks.
Proper "winter boots" have built in insulation, both in the upper and also and especially in a thick sole which prevents a loss of heat to the ground, this becomes a very significant issue in the colder months in contrast to being something you don't notice at all for the rest of the year.
Boots for the very coldest weather have soft insulated uppers, thick plastic or rubber soles and particularly thick insoles to prevent heat loss. Being so insulated they are large and can make you rather clumsy on uneven ground.
A good relatively recent development is the neoprene wellington style boot. These are basically a rubber wellington or gumboot with a close fitting neoprene rubber upper, thicker than a normal rain boot with better insulation, they provide warmth, ruggedness and good rough terrain performance.
You've dealt with basic insulation of the body, feet and head and the extremities are nicely protected. The last region to attend to are the potentially exposed in-between regions that we can easily ignore in warmer temperatures.
These are the wrists, ankles and neck which can become cold and uncomfortable. Heat will be lost from these areas if not insulated as blood moves between other better insulated areas.