I. From Norway to the Barrier
II. Off the
III. From the Bay of Whales to Buenos Aires
IV. The Oceanographical Cruise
V. At Buenos Aires
From Buenos Aires to the Ross Barrier
VII. From the Barrier
to Buenos Aires, Via Hobart
By Commodore Christian Blom
Remarks on the Meteorological
Observations at Framheim By B. J. Birkeland
By J. Schetelig
Astronomical Observations at the Pole By A. Alexander, with
Note by Professor H. Geelmuyden
Professors Bjorn Helland-Hansen and Fridtjof Nansen
On February 10, 1911, we started for
the South to establish depots, and continued our journey until April
11. We formed three depots and stored in them 3 tons of provisions,
including 22 hundredweight of seal meat. As there were no landmarks,
we had to indicate the position of our depots by flags, which were
posted at a distance of about four miles to the east and west. The
first barrier afforded the best going, and was specially adapted
for dog-sledging. Thus, on February 15 we did sixty-two miles with
sledges. Each sledge weighed 660 pounds, and we had six dogs for
each. The upper barrier ("barrier surface") was smooth
and even. There were a few crevasses here and there, but we only
found them dangerous at one or two points. The barrier went in long,
regular undulations. The weather was very favourable, with calms
or light winds. The lowest temperature at this station was -49°
F., which was taken on March 4.
When we returned to winter quarters
on February 5 from a first trip, we found that the Fram had already
left us. With joy and pride we heard from those who had stayed behind
that our gallant captain had succeeded in sailing her farther south
than any former ship. So the good old Fram has shown the flag of
Norway both farthest north and farthest south. The most southerly
latitude reached by the Fram was 78° 41'.
Before the winter set in we had 60 tons
of seal meat in our winter quarters; this was enough for ourselves
and our 110 dogs. We had built eight kennels and a number of connecting
tents and snow huts. When we had provided for the dogs, we thought
of ourselves. Our little hut was almost entirely covered with snow.
Not till the middle of April did we decide to adopt artificial light
in the hut. This we did with the help of a Lux lamp of 200 candle-power,
which gave an excellent light and kept the indoor temperature at
about 68° F. throughout the winter. The ventilation was very
satisfactory, and we got sufficient fresh air. The hut was directly
connected with the house in which we had our workshop, larder, storeroom,
and cellar, besides a single bathroom and observatory. Thus we had
everything within doors and easily got at, in case the weather should
be so cold and stormy that we could not venture out.
The sun left us on April 22, and we
did not see it again for four months. We spent the winter in altering
our whole equipment, which our depot journeys had shown to be too
heavy and clumsy for the smooth barrier surface. At the same time
we carried out all the scientific work for which there was opportunity.
We made a number of surprising meteorological observations. There
was very little snow, in spite of there being open water in the
neighbourhood. We had expected to observe higher temperatures in
the course of the winter, but the thermometer remained very low.
During five months temperatures were observed varying between -58°
and -74° F. We had the lowest (-74° F.) on August 13;
the weather was calm. On August 1 we had -72° F. with a wind
of thirteen miles an hour. The mean temperature for the year was
-15° F. We expected blizzard after blizzard, but had only two
moderate storms. We made many excellent observations of the aurora
australis in all parts of the heavens. Our bill of health was the
best possible throughout the whole winter. When the sun returned
on August 24 it shone upon men who were healthy in mind and body,
and ready to begin the task that lay before them.
We had brought the sledges the day before
to the starting-point of the southern journey. At the beginning
of September the temperature rose, and it was decided to commence
the journey. On September 8 a party of eight men set out, with seven
sledges and ninety dogs, provisioned for ninety days. The surface
was excellent, and the temperature not so bad as it might have been.
But on the following day we saw that we had started too early. The
temperature then fell, and remained for some days between -58°
and -75° F. Personally we did not suffer at all, as we had
good fur clothing, but with the dogs it was another matter. They
grew lanker and lanker every day, and we soon saw that they would
not be able to stand it in the long run. At our depot in lat. 80°
we agreed to turn back and await the arrival of spring. After having
stored our provisions, we returned to the hut. Excepting the loss
of a few dogs and one or two frostbitten heels, all was well. It
was not till the middle of October that the spring began in earnest.
Seals and birds were sighted. The temperature remained steady, between
-5° and -22° F.
Meanwhile we had abandoned the original
plan, by which all were to go to the south. Five men were to do
this, while three others made a trip to the east, to visit King
Edward VII. Land. This trip did not form part of our programme,
but as the English did not reach this land last summer, as had been
their intention, we agreed that it would be best to undertake this
journey in addition.
On October 20 the southern party left.
It consisted of five men with four sledges and fifty-two dogs, and
had provisions for four months. Everything was in excellent order,
and we had made up our minds to take it easy during the first part
of the journey, so that we and the dogs might not be too fatigued,
and we therefore decided to make a little halt on the 22nd at the
depot that lay in lat. 80°. However, we missed the mark owing
to thick fog, but after two or three miles' march we found the place
When we had rested here and given the
dogs as much seal meat as they were able to eat, we started again
on the 26th. The temperature remained steady, between -5° and
At first we had made up our minds not
to drive more than twelve to eighteen miles a day; but this proved
to be too little, thanks to our strong and willing animals. At lat.
80° we began to erect snow beacons, about the height of a man,
to show us the way home.
On the 31st we reached the depot in
lat. 81°. We halted for a day and fed the dogs on pemmican.
On November 5 we reached the depot in 82°, where for the last
time the dogs got as much to eat as they could manage.
On the 8th we started southward again,
and now made a daily march of about thirty miles. In order to relieve
the heavily laden sledges, we formed a depot at every parallel we
reached. The journey from lat. 82° to 83° was a pure pleasure
trip, on account of the surface and the temperature, which were
as favourable as one could wish. Everything went swimmingly until
the 9th, when we sighted South Victoria Land and the continuation
of the mountain chain, which Shackleton gives on his map, running
southeast from Beardmore Glacier. On the same day we reached lat.
83°, and established here Depot No. 4.
On the 11th we made the interesting
discovery that the Ross Barrier ended in an elevation on the south-east,
formed between a chain of mountains running south-eastward from
South Victoria Land and another chain on the opposite side, which
runs south-westward in continuation of King Edward VII. Land.
On the 13th we reached lat. 84°,
where we established a depot. On the 16th we got to 85°, where
again we formed a depot. From our winter quarters at Framheim we
had marched due south the whole time.
On November 17, in lat. 85°, we
came to a spot where the land barrier intersected our route, though
for the time being this did not cause us any difficulty. The barrier
here rises in the form of a wave to a height of about 300 feet,
and its limit is shown by a few large fissures. Here we established
our main depot. We took supplies for sixty days on the sledges and
left behind enough provisions for thirty days.
The land under which we now lay, and
which we were to attack, looked perfectly impossible, with peaks
along the barrier which rose to heights of from 2,000 to 10,000
feet. Farther south we saw more peaks, of 15,000 feet or higher.
Next day we began to climb. The first
part of the work was easy, as the ground rose gradually with smooth
snow-slopes below the mountain-side. Our dogs working well, it did
not take us long to get over these slopes.
At the next point we met with some small,
very steep glaciers, and here we had to harness twenty dogs to each
sledge and take the four sledges in two journeys. Some places were
so steep that it was difficult to use our ski. Several times we
were compelled by deep crevasses to turn back.
On the first day we climbed 2,000 feet.
The next day we crossed small glaciers, and camped at a height of
4,635 feet. On the third day we were obliged to descend the great
Axel Heiberg Glacier, which separates the mountains of the coast
from those farther south.
On the following day the longest part
of our climbing began. Many detours had to be made to avoid broad
fissures and open crevasses. Most of them were filled up, as in
all probability the glacier had long ago ceased to move; but we
had to be very careful, nevertheless, as we could never know the
depth of snow that covered them. Our camp that night was in very
picturesque surroundings, at a height of about 5,000 feet.
The glacier was here imprisoned between
two mountains of 15,000 feet, which we named after Fridtjof Nansen
and Don Pedro Christophersen.
At the bottom of the glacier we saw
Ole Engelstad's great snow-cone rising in the air to 19,000 feet.
The glacier was much broken up in this narrow defile; enormous crevasses
seemed as if they would stop our going farther, but fortunately
it was not so bad as it looked.
Our dogs, which during the last few
days had covered a distance of nearly 440 miles, put in a very good
piece of work that day, as they did twenty-two miles on ground rising
to 5,770 feet. It was an almost incredible record. It only took
us four days from the barrier to reach the immense inland plateau.
We camped at a height of 7,600 feet. Here we had to kill twenty-four
of our brave dogs, keeping eighteen -- six for each of our three
sledges. We halted here for four days on account of bad weather.
On November 25 we were tired of waiting, and started again. On the
26th we were overtaken by a raging blizzard. In the thick, driving
snow we could see absolutely nothing; but we felt that, contrary
to what we had expected -- namely, a further ascent -- we were going
rapidly downhill. The hypsometer that day showed a descent of 600
feet. We continued our march next day in a strong wind and thick,
driving snow. Our faces were badly frozen. There was no danger,
but we simply could see nothing. Next day, according to our reckoning,
we reached lat. 86°. The hypsometer showed a fall of 800 feet.
The following day passed in the same way. The weather cleared up
about noon, and there appeared to our astonished eyes a mighty mountain
range to the east of us, and not far away. But the vision only lasted
a moment, and then disappeared again in the driving snow. On the
29th the weather became calmer and the sun shone -- a pleasant surprise.
Our course lay over a great glacier, which ran in a southerly direction.
On its eastern side was a chain of mountains running to the southeast.
We had no view of its western part, as this was lost in a thick
fog. At the foot of the Devil's Glacier we established a depot in
lat. 86° 21', calculated for six days. The hypsometer showed
8,000 feet above sea level. On November 30 we began to ascend the
glacier. The lower part was much broken up and dangerous, and the
thin bridges of snow over the crevasses often broke under us. From
our camp that evening we had a splendid view of the mountains to
the east. Mount Helmer Hansen was the most remarkable of them all;
it was 12,000 feet high, and covered by a glacier so rugged that
in all probability it would have been impossible to find foothold
on it. Here were also Mounts Oskar Wisting, Sverre Hassel, and Olav
Bjaaland, grandly lighted up by the rays of the sun. In the distance,
and only visible from time to time through the driving mists, we
saw Mount Thorvald Nilsen, with peaks rising to 15,000 feet. We
could only see those parts of them that lay nearest to us. It took
us three days to get over the Devil's Glacier, as the weather was
On December 1 we left the glacier in
high spirits. It was cut up by innumerable crevasses and holes.
We were now at a height of 9,370 feet. In the mist and driving snow
it looked as if we had a frozen lake before us; but it proved to
be a sloping plateau of ice, full of small blocks of ice. Our walk
across this frozen lake was not pleasant. The ground under our feet
was evidently hollow, and it sounded as if we were walking on empty
barrels. First a man fell through, then a couple of dogs; but they
got up again all right. We could not, of course, use our ski on
this smooth-polished ice, but we got on fairly well with the sledges.
We called this place the Devil's Ballroom. This part of our march
was the most unpleasant of the whole trip. On December 2 we reached
our greatest elevation. According to the hypsometer and our aneroid
barometer we were at a height of 11,075 feet -- this was in lat.
87° 51'. On December 8 the bad weather came to an end, the
sun shone on us once more, and we were able to take our observations
again. It proved that the observations and our reckoning of the
distance covered gave exactly the same result -- namely, 88°
16' S. lat. Before us lay an absolutely flat plateau, only broken
by small crevices. In the afternoon we passed 88° 23', Shackleton's
farthest south. We pitched our camp in 88° 25', and established
our last depot -- No. 10. From 88° 25' the plateau began to
descend evenly and very slowly. We reached 88° 29' on December
9. On December 10, 88° 56'; December 11, 89° 15'; December
12, 89° 30'; December 13, 89° 45'.
Up to this moment the observations and
our reckoning had shown a surprising agreement. We reckoned that
we should be at the Pole on December 14. On the afternoon of that
day we had brilliant weather -- a light wind from the south-east
with a temperature of -10° F. The sledges were going very well.
The day passed without any occurrence worth mentioning, and at three
o'clock in the afternoon we halted, as according to our reckoning
we had reached our goal.
We all assembled about the Norwegian
flag -- a handsome silken flag -- which we took and planted all
together, and gave the immense plateau on which the Pole is situated
the name of "King Haakon VII.'s Plateau."
It was a vast plain of the same character
in every direction, mile after mile. During the afternoon we traversed
the neighbourhood of the camp, and on the following day, as the
weather was fine, we were occupied from six in the morning till
seven in the evening in taking observations, which gave us 89°
55' as the result. In order to take observations as near the Pole
as possible, we went on, as near true south as we could, for the
remaining 9 kilometres. On December 16 we pitched our camp in brilliant
sunshine, with the best conditions for taking observations. Four
of us took observations every hour of the day -- twenty-four in
all. The results of these will be submitted to the examination of
We have thus taken observations as near
to the Pole as was humanly possible with the instruments at our
disposal. We had a sextant and artificial horizon calculated for
a radius of 8 kilometres.
On December 17 we were ready to go.
We raised on the spot a little circular tent, and planted above
it the Norwegian flag and the Fram's pennant. The Norwegian camp
at the South Pole was given the name of "Polheim." The
distance from our winter quarters to the Pole was about 870 English
miles, so that we had covered on an average 15 1/2 miles a day.
We began the return journey on December
17. The weather was unusually favourable, and this made our return
considerably easier than the march to the Pole. We arrived at "Framheim,"
our winter quarters, in January, 1912, with two sledges and eleven
dogs, all well. On the homeward journey we covered an average of
22 1/2 miles a day. The lowest temperature we observed on this trip
was -24° F., and the highest +23° F.
The principal result -- besides the
attainment of the Pole -- is the determination of the extent and
character of the Ross Barrier. Next to this, the discovery of a
connection between South Victoria Land and, probably, King Edward
VII. Land through their continuation in huge mountain-ranges, which
run to the south-east and were seen as far south as lat. 88°
8', but which in all probability are continued right across the
Antarctic Continent. We gave the name of "Queen Maud's Mountains"
to the whole range of these newly discovered mountains, about 530
miles in length.
The expedition to King Edward VII. Land,
under Lieutenant Prestrud, has achieved excellent results. Scott's
discovery was confirmed, and the examination of the Bay of Whales
and the Ice Barrier, which the party carried out, is of great interest.
Good geological collections have been obtained from King Edward
VII. Land and South Victoria Land.
The Fram arrived at the Bay of Whales
on January 9, having been delayed in the "Roaring Forties "
by easterly winds.
On January 16 the Japanese expedition
arrived at the Bay of Whales, and landed on the Barrier near our
We left the Bay of Whales on January
30. We had a long voyage on account of contrary wind.
We are all in the best of health.
March 8, 1912.